Soviet infantry attacking across frozen river - winter 1941
Project 60: A Day-by-Day Diary of WWII
Remembering the First Fight Against Fascism
Soviet painting depicting scene from winter fighting - 1941
Six-thousand Jews from Stanislawow arrive at Belzec to be killed. New rules went into effect at Auschwitz whereby those "fit for work" would be sent to Birkenau as forced labor rather than directly to the gas chambers.
April 1, 1942
The United States
begins to remove any person of Japanese ancestry, including citizens, from
coastal areas of the Pacific. Similar actions were not taken on the Atlantic
coast or of people of German or Italian descent.
Axis air raids on the
Maltese port of La Valetta are renewed.
Japanese bombers hit
Mandalay, killing 2000 and destroying much of the city.
April 4 1942
Heavy fighting is reported on Bataan as US-Filipino forces are forced back to make their final stands.
April 5, 1942
The Pearl Harbor
carriers were back in action on this day. In a raid by over 200 aircraft, the
Royal Navy cruisers Cornwall and HMS Dorsetshire and destroyer Tenedos
are attacked and sunk off Ceylon. In another set of raids targeting Colombo
and Trincomalee in the Bay of Bengal, 23 merchant ships are sunk. In all 800
British sailors and 112,000 tons of shipping were lost. The Japanese had 36
planes shot down.
April 6, 1942
Red Army forces make limited advances against very stiff German resistance in the Smolensk area.
German bombers hit the port facilities in Alexandria, Egypt
Editor's Corner Archive:
Afghanistan and Vietnam: When the "war against terrorism" began, many knowledgeable people warned that our operations in Afghanistan would turn into another Vietnam.
Want to Win - Think Before You Lash Out - "If we are serious about taking the war to the enemy, it is time to look ..."
The First Fight Against Fascism - We must remember the Spanish Civil War also.
Arguing Victory - "... Each nation who fought against fascist tyranny in WWII brought with it part of whole needed to defeat that evil..."
War, Glory, Honor and Remembrance - "War is a brutal and savage insult on human society..."
First Casualty... in time of war, those in power are even more inclined to hide the truth,
since that truth is often manifest in the most gruesome and terrible
Those wishing to contribute items. stories or comments should contact D.A. Friedrichs
The items found in this section are comments from the editors of Project 60 and may not necessarily reflect the opinions of bartcop.
Even the Army Tells the Truth - Once in a While
good, thoughtful and accurate information, is often hard to come by in
this day and age. But every once in a while, a group will immerge which
provides that need to the people. The publishers of
Parameters is one such group.
is the quarterly journal of the U.S. Army War College. Their stated
mission is to provide,
To a large
extent, they do just what they say they will do, providing intelligent
and often critical commentary on their profession. This is not the
typical propaganda we have come to expect from our daily Pentagon news
briefs or political nonsense from a never-ending stream of Republican
chickenhawks. These are the thoughts of professionals, striving to make
their profession function better.
In the Spring
2002 issue, there is an interesting article by Michael A. Carlino
entitled "The Moral Limits of Strategic Attack". Carlino
Seldom have truer words been spoken.
presents a commentary on the concept of "force protection" as a
military goal and concludes,
He goes on to discuss "mission" and introduces the idea, that underlying all missions are the protection of the values of the nation for which the combatant is fighting. One of the universal principles of the United States is the right of the individual to life. Therefore, concludes Carlino, the preservation of the lives of innocents is a mission requirement at all times for our military and concludes,
conclusion then is that the concept of "force protection" takes a
back seat to minimizing "noncombatant casualties". If this is not
the case, we deny those fundamental values that we supposedly fight for.
US Air Force doctrine since operation Desert Storm has centered around the concept of destroying the enemy's "centers of gravity" - denying the enemy freedom of action through destruction of leadership, communications and transportation infrastructure.
"just war", targeting considerations are based on four basic
requirements - legitimacy (is the target valid), effect (are the
results of a successful mission worth the effort), intent (is the
destruction of the target moral), proportionality (do potential
"collateral damage" effects outweigh the level of effort required).
This concept is in direct conflict with stated doctrine and politically
defined missions in our recent commitments in the United States.
After a great
deal of discussion on these factors, Carlino brings forward an
interesting comparison between terrorism and strategic bombing, stating,
terrorist's response would be that his seemingly evil methods, though
drastic, are in fact justified, because they are the only ones available
in the given situation. Such a claim is unacceptable. Even a good cause
does not justify the use of any possible method to achieve it. The
fact is that other means are always available. terrorism is not the
only recourse, as the terrorist claims. The reality is that the
terrorist is unwilling to assume risk and instead transfers it to
Interestingly, however, the moral condemnation that applies to the terrorist differs only in degree, not kind, regarding the current practice involving foreseeable deaths [from strategic bombing]. breaking the will of an enemy through strategic attack has no more moral legitimacy than terrorism if it capitalizes on the innocent."
Carlino concludes his discussion with several recommendations. He indicates that if we are to fight a "just war", our political leaders need to de-emphasize zero-casualty wars. Political leaders need to better articulate national goals so that everyone is cognizant that this is important and worth doing even with losses. Also, until bombing can be as discriminate as the soldier on the ground, military leaders must shift to the "smarter weapon" to avoid mistakes.
The article concludes by saying,
That pretty much covers it.
D. A. Friedrichs
Read the Carlino article by following this link.